Group Members: Jessica Cowper, Alex Conner, Maddy Doyle

What is the difference between using and abusing alcohol?
Some people are recommened from their healthcare providers, to drink one drink a day if you're a woman and two drinks a day if you are a man. That is an example of using alcohol. Alcohol can be abused too. This type of abuse occurs when alcohol interferes with a person's ability to function normally and his or her daily life becomes impaired.
Is alcohol always bad?

No you could be using alcohol just at dinner or for a small celebration and you could be drinking very little therefore you would not be getting drunk.
What would you use alcohol for?
You could use alcohol for good things, but also people use it for bad things. They think it's cool to drink and they do it because it will make them popular. Other people would just do it at a party for fun and enjoyment.
In what cases would you abuse alcohol?

If you are abusing it that means it is your main focus and you can’t control it. If you are a mother and you are drinking during a pregnancy you are abusing it because you are hurting yourself and the life inside you. Another way of abusing it is when you drink and drive, you are risking other people’s lives and your own.
Can alcohol be used in innocent ways?
Yes, if you are of age and you are drinking to celebrate or you are out to dinner and you aren’t overdoing it, then it is innocent.
What are the reasons people abuse alcohol?
People abuse alcohol because they think it can help them relieve stress or they do it because of peer pressure. Sometimes if your family had a history of mental illness or alcoholism that could be a reason.
In what ways can you use alcohol for good purposes?
Certain religions use wine in their teaching, therefore it isn't always bad. The United States understands that it is okay to use alcohol for pleasure, but not often. It is a stated fact that it can be used to relax and relieve you but it is not used for that all the time, once in a while is okay.
How can people stop themselves from abusing alcohol?
People can stop themselves by seeing a doctor or getting help from someone. Talking about your problem helps a lot. You can also talk to other people who are going through the same thing as you or went through the same thing and get advice from them.
What are the consequences of abusing alcohol?
You risk your life and the lives of others. Your health is severely damaged and it takes quite some time to heal. You can get in trouble with your parents (if you are young), with the law, and with your school. It can prevent you from getting a job, and you could also be thrown in jail if you aren't careful. Being aware of your alcohol problem is very serious.
What are the physical signs of abuse of alcohol?
You have slurred speech, dizziness, clumsiness, blackouts, weight loss, sore or upset stomach, redness in the face, and numbness or tingling in your hands and feet.
Are the effects permanent?
Yes, you can have permanent damage to your vital organs. But the other effects are able to be cured.


Who abuses alcohol mostly?
According to the 2004-05 Australian Bureau of Statistics National Health Survey, the proportion of adults who had consumed alcohol at levels which, if continued, would be risky or a high risk to their health for both men and women was the 55 - 64 year age group.
According to results of an annual survey of students in 8th, 10th, and 12th grades, 26 percent of 8th graders, 40 percent of 10th graders, and 51 percent of 12th graders reported drinking alcohol within the past month
http://www.alcoholism-information.com/What_Age_is_Alcoholism_Most_Prevalent_.html
When in what years would someone abuse alcohol the most?
Is it common for teenagers to abuse alcohol?
Thirteen- to fifteen-year-olds are at high risk to begin drinking (3). According to results of an annual survey of students in 8th, 10th, and 12th grades, 26 percent of 8th graders, 40 percent of 10th graders, and 51 percent of 12th graders reported drinking alcohol within the past month (4). Binge drinking at least once during the 2 weeks before the survey was reported by 16 percent of 8th graders, 25 percent of 10th graders, and 30 percent of 12th graders. Males report higher rates of daily drinking and binge drinking than females, but these differences are diminishing (3). White students report the highest levels of drinking, blacks report the lowest, and Hispanics fall between the two (3).
http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/aa37.htm
How many deaths a year are there due to the abuse of alcohol?

  • 5% of all deaths from diseases of the circulatory system are attributed to alcohol.
  • 15% of all deaths from diseases of the respiratory system are attributed to alcohol.
  • 30% of all deaths from accidents caused by fire and flames are attributed to alcohol.
  • 30% of all accidental drownings are attributed to alcohol.
  • 30% of all suicides are attributed to alcohol.
  • 40% of all deaths due to accidental falls are attributed to alcohol.
  • 45% of all deaths in automobile accidents are attributed to alcohol.
  • 60% of all homicides are attributed to alcohol.
Why do people use alcohol?
While experts have linked alcoholism to physiological (possibly hereditary), psychological, socioeconomic, ethnic, cultural, and other factors, there is no clear explanation of its genesis.
People also use alcohol to relieve their stress and try to calm themselves.
The pleasant sensation that may begin at the early stages of drinking piques the curiosity for more, especially since it creates a level of euphoria. For a moment, alcohol can ease physical and emotional pain, but with continued use of alcohol, the effects only intensify emotional and physical problems. The problem stems when the person who drinks needs more and more to feel better, which can lead to addiction. Basically, alcohol may temporarily provide a sense of relief from reality, but this escape is only short-lived and leads to risky drinking. In short, drinking to escape is simply drinking to escape from ourselves.
What could be some of the consequences of using or abusing alcohol?
Studies have shown that long-term alcohol abuse produces serious, harmful effects on a variety of
the body’s organ systems. Parts of the human body most affected include the liver and the
immune, cardiovascular, and skeletal systems. Current research has examined some of these
effects in an effort to better understand the medical consequences of alcohol use and abuse and to
ultimately develop more effective treatments for responding to alcohol-induced bodily damage
http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh24-1/27-31.pdf
Drinking and Driving. Of the nearly 8,000 drivers ages 15-20 involved in fatal crashes in 1995, 20 percent had blood alcohol concentrations above zero. For more information about young drivers' increased crash risk and the factors that contribute to this risk, see Alcohol Alert No. 31: Drinking and Driving.
Sexual Behavior. Surveys of adolescents suggest that alcohol use is associated with risky sexual behavior and increased vulnerability to coercive sexual activity. Among adolescents surveyed in New Zealand, alcohol misuse was significantly associated with unprotected intercourse and sexual activity before age 16. Forty-four percent of sexually active Massachusetts teenagers said they were more likely to have sexual intercourse if they had been drinking, and 17 percent said they were less likely to use condoms after drinking.
Risky Behavior and Victimization. Survey results from a nationally representative sample of 8th and 10th graders indicated that alcohol use was significantly associated with both risky behavior and victimization and that this relationship was strongest among the 8th-grade males, compared with other students.
Puberty and Bone Growth. High doses of alcohol have been found to delay puberty in female and male rats, and large quantities of alcohol consumed by young rats can slow bone growth and result in weaker bones. However, the implications of these findings for young people are not clear.

http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/aa37.html

Why is this such a problem in our community?
Advertising. Research on the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol-related beliefs and behaviors has been limited. While earlier studies measured the effects of exposure to advertising, more recent research has assessed the effects of alcohol advertising awareness on intentions to drink. In a study of fifth- and sixth-grade students' awareness, measured by the ability to identify products in commercials with the product name blocked out, awareness had a small but statistically significant relationship to positive expectancies about alcohol and to intention to drink as adults. This suggests that alcohol advertising may influence adolescents to be more favorably predisposed to drinking.
http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/aa37.html
What influences alcohol the most?
Advertising and peer pressure are the influences mostly.
Why do people turn to alcohol rather than help?
Much research has been done in just about every country in an effort to understand why people drink alcohol. There are many theories and reasons based on expert’s opinions but for the most part, people drink for sociability. If you asked them why they drink, they would probably say they like the taste, it makes them feel at ease, it helps emotional feelings diminish, they forget about problems, it makes them feel happier and blah, blah, blah. But in truth, people throughout history, have been consuming alcohol and enjoying the feelings associated with alcohol for centuries. In fact, on any given day at almost any given time, in just about any part of the world, you can find people drinking everything from beer to whiskey, gin, vodka, rum, brandies and liqueurs. But what is the fascination with alcohol and why do people in our society consume so much alcohol? What’s behind the need for becoming inebriated and why are so many people attracted to it?
http://www.straightdui.com/dui_articles_why_turn_to_alcohol.asp
What can help people from abusing alcohol?
Three oral medications—disulfiram, naltrexone, and acomproste are to treat alcohol dependence.
There's also therapy and help along those lines.
Other types of drugs are available to help manage symptoms of withdrawal (such as shakiness, nausea, and sweating) if they occur after someone with alcohol dependence stops drinking.
Although medications are available to help treat alcoholism, there is no "magic bullet." In other words, no single medication is available that works in every case and/or in every person. Developing new and more effective medications to treat alcoholism remains a high priority for researchers.
http://www.medicinenet.com/alcohol_abuse_and_alcoholism/page2.htm#17whatmedications
The problem is that the abuse of alcohol can turn into a disease and can lead to an addiction. It can also seem to take over your life in the sense where that's all you need and that's all you want. The problem is that we loose 100,000 people a year over alcohol related things. This is a moral issue because morally it is not right to blame alcohol for getting in a car and killing another human being. It is also not moral to be drunk and act like a completely different person. Also, alcohol makes you feel and act differently so you would do things out of the ordinary that you never do normally. You could go rob a bank, or something along those lines and morally that just is not right.
Vocabulary:
Alcoholism- a chronic disorder characterized by dependence on alcohol, repeated excessive use of alcoholic beverages, the development of withdrawal symptoms on reducing or ceasing intake, morbidity that may include cirrhosis of the liver, and decreased ability to function socially and vocationally.
drug- any article, other than food, intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of humans or other animals.
MIP- Minor in Possession
Liver failure-Liver failure is the inability of the liver to perform its normal synthetic and metabolic function as part of normal physiology.
Addiction-the state of being enslaved to a habit or practice or to something that is psychologically or physically habit-forming, as narcotics, to such an extent that its cessation causes severe trauma.
drunk-being in a temporary state in which one's physical and mental faculties are impaired by an excess of alcoholic drink; intoxicated

More than 100,000 U.S. deaths are caused by excessive alcohol consumption each year. Direct and indirect causes of death include drunk driving, cirrhosis of the liver, falls, cancer, and stroke.1

At least once a year, the guidelines for low risk drinking are exceeded by an estimated 74% of male drinkers and 72% of female drinkers aged 21 and older.


65% of youth surveyed said that they got the alcohol they drink from family and friends.

Nearly 14 million Americans meet diagnostic criteria for alcohol use disorders.

Youth who drink alcohol are 50 times more likely to use cocaine than those who never drink alcohol.

Among current adult drinkers, more than half say they have a blood relative who is or was an alcoholic or problem drinker

Across people of all ages, males are four times as likely as females to be heavy drinkers.
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More than 18% of Americans experience alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence at some time in their lives.

Traffic crashes are the greatest single cause of death for persons aged 6–33. About 45% of these fatalities are in alcohol-related crashes.

Underage drinking costs the United States more than $58 billion every year — enough to buy every public school student a state-of-the-art computer.

Alcohol is the most commonly used drug among young people.

Problem drinkers average four times as many days in the hospital as nondrinkers — mostly because of drinking-related injuries.

Alcohol kills 6½ times more youth than all other illicit drugs combined.

Concerning the past 30 days, 50% of high school seniors report drinking, with 32% report being drunk at least once.


Use and abuse of alcohol has pros and cons, but mostly cons. The problem with the abuse of alcohol is it is a disease, a chronic, progressive, fatal disease if not treated. The problem with the use of alcohol is it distorts your judgment, it is distracting, and it makes you react differently because it slows your reaction time down. This is a moral issue because it can seriously affect your life in mostly a negative way. It has some short term effects, but also a number of long term effects. The difference between using alcohol correctly and abusing alcohol is when alcohol becomes your focus. You might only want to go to parties that involve alcohol or else you think you won’t have fun. Alcohol isn’t always bad. You can drink alcohol when you are of age and just enjoy yourself without overdoing it.
An important word for understanding alcohol is alcoholism. It is when alcohol becomes essential to function. Some alcoholics can hold down a job or appear to be functioning on the surface, but the drinking certainly leads to weakened job performance and troubled relationships. A DUI can be received if you are driving under the influence and an MIP is if you are a minor and are caught with alcohol. Both of these travel with you for quite some time and take a while to get erased. They are not something to look at like a ticket where you can get rid of it easily, they are serious and they have an extremely negative effect on your future life.

Statistics:
More than 100,000 U.S. deaths are caused by excessive alcohol consumption each year. Direct and indirect causes of death include drunk driving, cirrhosis of the liver, falls, cancer, and stroke.
More than 18% of Americans experience alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence at some time in their lives.
Alcohol kills 6½ times more youth than all other illicit drugs combined.


alcohol_chart.jpg

alcohol.jpg

alcohol-effects2.jpg

Alcohol-Stages.jpgbac_mee.pngbac_wom.png
What is the problem? The problem is the Use and Abuse of Alcohol.
Why is this a moral issue? It is a moral issue because some people use alcohol for depression which could kill them and some use alcohol illegally when they are underage; another way the use and abuse of alcohol can be a moral issue is when people abuse the privilege of drinking alcohol in harmful ways to themselves and others.
What specific terms are part of the vocabulary for this issue? How are those terms defined?
Alcohol abuse: Use of alcoholic beverages to excess, either on individual occasions ("binge drinking") or as a regular practice. Heavy alcohol abuse can cause physical damage and death.
Alcoholics Anonymous: A free, self-help organization founded to assist people addicted to alcohol in breaking old behavior patterns and gaining support for living a sober lifestyle.
Alcoholism: Physical dependence on alcohol to the extent that stopping alcohol use will bring on withdrawal symptoms. Treatment requires first ending the physical dependence, then making lifestyle changes that help the individual avoid relapse.
Chronic: Comes from the Greek chronos, time and means lasting a long time.
Family history: The family structure and relationships within the family, including information about diseases in family members.
Hangover: A common nonmedical term for the disagreeable physical effects following excessive consumption of alcohol (or the use of other drugs).
Intervention: The act of intervening, interfering or inte​rceding with the intent of modifying the outcome.
Relapse: The return of signs and symptoms of a disease after a patient has enjoyed a remission.
Substance abuse: The excessive use of a substance, especially alcohol or a drug.

Are there graphs, statistics, charts or pictures that help to define facts for this issue? Yes. [[file:/C:\Users\Joyce\Documents\graphs statistics charts pictures.docx|C:\Users\Joyce\Documents\graphs statistics charts pictures.docx]] Sources for pictures are underneath them.

Source for information.
http://www.medicinenet.com/alcohol_abuse_and_alcoholism/glossary.htm

If that link (above) does not work this is that document (below).






10 Topic: Use and Abuse of Alcohol
® What age specifically has the most difficult time with alcohol abuse?
® How does too much alcohol affect a person’s body?
® If you are above the age of 21 is it still illegal for a person to have a blood alcohol content level higher than the normal limit if they are inside at their house or something?
® Can alcohol ever be considered a good thing?
® Is alcohol more abused for bad things or used for neutral things that are okay and legal?
® What age is most affected by alcohol abuse?
® How do you know if you have abused the use of alcohol too much and your body cannot take anymore?
® Where can you get help for abusing alcohol?
® Is it illegal for a minor to be driving in their car with closed bottles/cans of alcohol?
® How many Americans have an issue with alcohol abuse?



Part III:

http://www.articlesonalcoholabuse.com/
Alcohol has been consumed for many years. In small amounts it can be relaxing. In America alcohol abuse is becoming a serious problem. 1 in 13 adults are affected by alcohol abuse. In USA alone, 12-14 million adults abuse the substance each year—around 100,000 adults will die from alcohol abuse. Also proven most car accidents, suicides and homicides are under the influence. What are the Signs of Alcohol Abuse? Occasional drinks at home or with friends does not mean there is a problem. In women, a key indication that there is alcohol abuse is if you consume more than seven drinks a week and more than three in a social situation. In men, the rate of consumption would have to equal more than 14 drinks per week or access of four drinks while with friends. Physical dependence on it, such as nausea, sweating, and headaches if no alcohol is consumed is another sign. Alcohol abuse is a very serious disease that is escalating in America. This is a treatable disease, but not curable and it can affect anyone.


http://www.teendrugabuse.us/teensandalcohol.html

Adolescence is a transition time when the body is undergoing many significant changes, such as hormonal alterations and brain development. It is also a time when young people start to associate more with friends and associates beyond their childhood contacts. They feel an increased pressure to ‘fit in’ or ‘go along with the crowd’ in order to be accepted socially.
Alcohol is absorbed very rapidly into the blood stream from the stomach lining, in as short a time as 5 to 10 minutes and it’s effects last for several hours depending on the amount ingested and how quickly it was consumed. Females absorb alcohol faster than males because their bodies contain less water. The water dilutes the alcohol and so the same amount of alcohol will produce a higher concentration in the blood. People who begin drinking before age 15 are four times more likely to develop alcohol dependence at some time in their lives compared with those who have their first drink at age 20 or older. It is not clear whether starting to drink at an early age actually causes alcoholism. Environmental factors may also be involved, especially in alcoholic families, where children may start drinking earlier because of easier access to alcohol in the home, family acceptance of drinking and lack of parental monitoring. Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among youth ages 15 to 20. The rate of fatal crashes among alcohol-involved drivers between 16 and 20 years old is more than twice the rate for alcohol-involved drivers 21 and older. Alcohol use interacts with conditions such as depression and stress to contribute to suicide, the third leading cause of death among people between the ages of 14 and 25. In one study, 37 percent of eighth grade females who drank heavily reported attempting suicide, compared with 11 percent who did not drink. Sexual assault, including rape, occurs most commonly among women in late adolescence and early adulthood, usually within the context of a date. In one survey, approximately 10 percent of female high school students reported having been raped. Research suggests that alcohol use by the offender, the victim or both, increase the likelihood of sexual assault by a male acquaintance. Research has associated adolescent alcohol use with high-risk sex, for instance, multiple partners or unprotected sex. The consequences of high-risk sex also are common in this age group, particularly unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS. According to a recent study, the link between high-risk sex and drinking is affected by the quantity of alcohol consumed. The probability of sexual intercourse is increased by drinking amounts of alcohol sufficient to impair judgment, but decreased by drinking heavier amounts that result in feelings of nausea, passing out, or mental confusion. Binge Drinking. Though most college drinkers would deny it, young people do die solely from drinking. In 1995, 318 people ages 15 to 24 died from alcohol poisoning alone, man of them after a night binge at college. At the University of Virginia, a tradition that has seniors drinking a fifth of hard liquor at the final game of the football season (so-called “Fourth-year Fifth”) has killed 18 students since 1990.

Works Cited:
Jay, Christopher. "Alcohol Abuse: What Is It and How to Recognize It". 1/3/10 <http://www.articlesonalcoholabuse.com/>.
"The Health Effects of Teen Alcohol Use". Teen Help: Schools for troubled teens. 1/3/10 <http://www.teendrugabuse.us/teensandalcohol.html>.


interviews:

- interview with Jerry Conner
- interview with Beth Conner
- Alex


http://www.teenzeen.org/alcoholism.html

Research states that many teenagers go through a phase in their teen years where they experience alcohol abuse. It is usually just a partying phase but if they keep with it they could end up an alcoholic. Alcohol abuse usually refers to continual drinking ending with bad situations, or it can simply be just one incident that will deeply impact your life. Drinking and driving is an example of one incident that could strongly impact you. If you lost your life or killed someone else, you would never forget it because you know it was due to your poor decisions. Alcoholism is different from alcohol abuse though. It is a level up and more dangerous. This is when alcohol starts to take over your body. It’s all you can think about and all you want to do. You start doing it just to feel good, or to relieve stress. You lose control of yourself and can’t help but drink. In the end, research states that alcohol abuse and alcoholism are both serious issues. The problems listed above are just some of the many you can experience. It is recommended to know the symptoms of alcohol abuse and be sure to get help as soon as you think it’s necessary. Alcohol is life-changing, usually in a negative way.

http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/alcohol-abuse/news/20070702/alcohol-abuse-alcoholism-common

Research states that 30% of U.S. adults have experienced alcohol abuse or something related to it. More and more are neglecting getting help or treatment. They don’t realize how necessary it is to get cured. Alcohol abuse includes drinking problems minus the fact that you aren’t reliant on alcohol. The NIAAA has a list of questions listed in this article for people to answer and if they answer yes to at least one of the question then it is possible for them to have some sort of problem. If they answered yes to more than one, it is highly this person has a problem that exists. It states that alcohol abuse is more common in men than in women. Among the ethnic groups, Native Americans got the highest rate of alcohol use and the whites followed close behind. Alcohol use typically starts around the age of 22. For an average, it lasts about 3 years. Few alcohol users and abusers get help for their problem. Studies show that only 24% of those who had ever been alcoholics received treatment, while 7% of those who had ever abused alcohol ever received treatment. This isn’t a very high percentage and it should be higher because these problems need to be cured. It is discovered that a main reason why people don’t come to get help is because they are ashamed of their problem and don’t want to be judged.

Works Cited


Hitti, Miranda. "Alcohol Abuse, Alcoholism Common."Alcohol Abuse Health Center 2 July 2007: n. pag. Web. 1 Jan 2010. <http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/alcohol-abuse/news/20070702/alcohol-abuse-alcoholism-common>.t

"Teen Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse." Teen Zeen//2008: n. pag. Web. 1 Jan 2010. <http://www.teenzeen.org/alcoholism.html>.\

Interviews:


- Jim Cowper is being interviewed



- Danielle Cowper is being interviewed.


http://www.health.harvard.edu/special_health_reports/alcohol_use_and_abuse

This is a link to a Harvard site talking about the use and abuse of alcohol. The section referred to as excerpt, meaning taken from a longer source, discusses that many people who abuse alcohol do not admit that they have a problem instead they deny it saying that nothing is wrong. Since the person with the drinking problem will not get themselves help, their families or friends have to step in and support the person. When people feel guilt about drinking it causes more stress on them leading them to drink more. Instead of guilting people about their drinking problems people need to support them in making better decisions and getting help.

http://articlesonalcoholabuse.com/alcohol-abuse-among-college-students-is-serious-stuff

This is a link to an article on Alcohol Abuse among college students. In movies alcohol among teens is portrayed as more of a fun, easygoing thing to do. But in reality, teen alcohol abuse in college students is the opposite, illegal and dangerous. In 1993 a study of over 18,000 college students found that nearly 44% of the student surveyed drink excessively just to get drunk. For people to drink just for the feeling of being “drunk” is irrational. It is not only dangerous to the student’s bodies and health but could also lead to death. Underage drinking in college can lead to bad decisions and drastic endings. A large percentage of college males convicted of date rape were binge drinking immediately prior to the rape taking place. If students continue to drink that could lead them to having a drinking problem in the future. Underage drinking is a huge problem on college campuses all over the country and it is contributing to the binge drinking issue that is killing college students every year.




Many Christian denominations prohibit or discourage the use of alcohol altogether, and those which don't proscribe its use caution against drunkenness. The Bible has 17 warnings against the abuse of wine and strong drink and 19 examples of its abuse. Nowhere, in these references or elsewhere, is it even remotely suggested that it is considered a sin. United with the fact that Jesus himself chose wine as an essential part of communion, we are forced to conclude that representing alcohol as inherently evil is not a scriptural position. There are four references to people falsely accused of being drunk: three for Hannah and one at Pentecost. In connection with our current inquiry, it cannot be ignored that several of the references to wine in the Bible involve Jesus. To suggest that any use of wine is a sin would be to suggest that Jesus sinned. The new Catechism of the Catholic Church condemns drunken excess and illegal drugs.

http://wooga.drbacchus.com/bible/alcohol.html

http://chetday.com/alcoholandthebible2.htm



- Jessica Cowper


- Maddy Doyle