Summary
Interviews
QUESTIONS
Our Issue
Facts

JACKIE

Articles

Source 1 http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/cas/What-We-Learned-08.pdf
This is an article from the Public Health College Alcohol Study from Harvard. It focuses on the consumption of alcohol. It also includes and explains the different effects of drinking too much, statistics on college students who drink alcohol, and charts taken by these students. This article discusses binge drinking and it's serious consequences and effects. It talks about the second hand effects of alcohol and also the influences in society and community factors that encourage the use of alcohol. The article concludes with prevention methods and efforts.

Source 2 http://www.cdc.gov/alcohol/faqs.htm#16
This is an article from the Department of Health and Human Services from CDC which stands for Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This was an article of frequently asked questions and reliable and detailed answers. It gave the definition of alcohol, gave the effects of alcohol, and discussed what is safe in terms of how many drinks or what kind of alcohol is best. It also included ways of prevention, what to do in case you feel you or someone else has an addiction, and what it means to obey the "legal limits". It went on to describe what a binge drinker is, different health problems, and defined alcohol abuse as well as alcoholism illustrating a clear difference between the two. It explained when it is okay and not okay for someone to drink and what it meant to be intoxicated or drunk.

Source 3 http://web4health.info/en/answers/add-alcohol-why.htm
This article is from a woman psychologist that wrote it. It has many categories and includes free medical information and advice. Some topics that I used were: the different effects of alcohol, long and short and positive and negative, withdrawal symptoms - what they are and when they go away, and the definition of alcohol and addiction. I also looked at if an alcohol addiction was hereditary or not, and why people drink. These articles also provided help and advice if it was needed in any situation. It gave people reliable facts and reasons to the why and how questions.

Works Cited

Moelker, Wendy. "Why do People Drink Alcohol?." 22 July 2008 25 Nov 2008 <http://web4health.info/en/answers/add-alcohol-why.htm>.

Tegerdine, Nick. "Why do people drink alcohol?." 25 Nov 2008 <http://www.apas.org.uk/why_people_drink.htm >.

Gerberding, Julie . "Frequently Asked Questions." 28 September 2008 25 Nov 2008 <http://www.cdc.gov/alcohol/faqs.htm#8>.

Wechsler, Henry, Nelson, Toben F./'. "What We Have Learned From the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study: Focusing Attention on College Student Alcohol Consumption and the Environmental Conditions That Promote It." July 2008 1-8. 25 Nov 2008 <http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/cas/What-We-Learned-08.pdf>.

Wells, Michael H.. "Criminal Defenses and DUI." (2005) 25 Nov 2008 <http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.myrtle-beach-lawyer.com/bac.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.myrtle-beach-lawyer.com/Criminal%2520Defense.htm&usg=__gaV7OwlSc0xtbLd3Yj5s2YLxQvU=&h=262&w=659&sz=13&hl=en&start=4&tbnid=iUI7VnyRvCBzpM:&tbnh=55&tbnw=138&prev=/images%3Fq%3DBAC%2Bcharts%26gbv%3D2%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG>.

JACKIE

ARTICLE ONE:

The Alcohol Industry Should Not Be Permitted to Advertise the Health Benefits of Moderate Drinking


Table of Contents: Further Reading
Reprinted from "Moderation and Drinking Don't Mix" San Diego Union-Tribune, April 22, 1998, by permission of the author.
About the author: Robert Zimmerman is a writer who specializes in alcohol and drug topics and is editor of the quarterly Prevention File.
Let's hear it for moderation! We're all for moderation, aren't we? Well, it depends.
Senator Strom Thurmond is proposing that the warning labels on alcoholic beverages be broadened to mention that even moderate consumption of alcohol may lead to alcoholism or can cause health problems such as hypertension and breast cancer.
His bill sends a shudder through the Napa Valley and the rest of the wine country. The vintners have been trying to convince the government that it would be all right to put a label on their bottles associating "moderate wine consumption" with good health. We can't have it both ways.
The Health Benefits of Alcohol Are Exaggerated
Research on alcohol and health appears to be moving faster than federal agencies can decide what to say about it. In 1991 a "60 Minutes" feature about the so-called French paradox fell like manna from heaven for the wine people. The French, it seems, eat the kind of fatty diet that clogs arteries. Yet the French have lower rates of heart disease than such a diet would suggest. Why? Because the French drink lots of wine. Scientists have confirmed that a glass or two of wine per day—or the equivalent amount of alcohol from any other source—can lower one's risk for heart trouble.
This evidence was compelling enough for the Public Health Service in 1995 to include a mention of it in its "Dietary Guidelines for Americans," being careful to point out that the benefit comes from a "moderate" amount of alcohol—one drink a day for women or two for men. The guidelines define a drink as 12 ounces of regular beer, 5 ounces of wine, or a 1.5-ounce shot of distilled spirits.
But the Journal of the American Medical Association in February [1998] published new research indicating that a woman's risk of breast cancer begins to rise with one glass of wine per day and is fully 40 percent greater if she drinks from two to five glasses in a day. And the recent Bill Moyers PBS special on addiction summarized new research on how alcohol affects the brain in ways similar to illegal drugs and can lead to addiction. To their credit Moyers and the PBS producers did not go along with the effort by alcoholic beverage companies to keep beer, wine and whiskey from being identified with other addictive drugs.
Too Vague a Term
So what should the government say about "moderate" use of alcohol? Not only is alcohol dangerous for some people, but so is the word "moderate." Health professionals who screen patients for alcohol abuse are familiar with how slippery "moderation" can be, like the guy who describes himself as a moderate drinker because he only drinks one six-pack of beer every evening.
The federal Center for Substance Abuse Prevention ran a test on how drinkers would interpret a reference to "moderate wine consumption" as it would appear on proposed wine labels. Most of the 400 people in the survey said they had read or heard news stories about the link between wine and reduced risk of heart disease, and some said they were drinking more wine as a result. But the majority said they don't usually read wine labels, and if they read one like the sample they doubt if it would change their drinking behavior.
What was most striking about the survey is what it revealed about the meaning of the term "moderate." It means whatever anyone wants it to mean. Moderate in the minds of those interviewed ranged from one or two drinks in a month, to a whole bottle of wine in an evening.
"The word 'moderate' when associated with drinking has virtually no meaning," the researchers concluded. "The more one drinks, the more drinking one thinks is moderate."
The average number of drinks per occasion that heavy drinkers thought was moderate was almost six—which is more than the generally accepted definition of "binge" drinking.
In the 1970s the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism launched a campaign to encourage "responsible" drinking. The program was quietly buried when it became obvious that no one could define exactly what "responsible" drinking amounted to. Is a message about "moderate" drinking any more likely to be understood? Apparently not.
Any Amount of Alcohol Is Dangerous for Some People
Wine bottles and other alcoholic beverage containers since 1989 have carried a government-mandated warning that women should not drink during pregnancy because of the risk of birth defects, and that consumption of alcohol impairs one's ability to drive a car and operate machinery, and may cause health problems.
If Senator Thurmond wants to add a specific warning about alcoholism and breast cancer, fine. There needn't be a reference to "moderate" drinking because consuming any amount of alcohol is dangerous for some people, as the research shows.
And the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, which has jurisdiction over labels, should tell the wine people to forget about trying to capitalize on the French paradox.

Source 1: http://find.galegroup.com/ovrc/retrieve.do?subjectParam=Locale%2528en%252C%252C%2529%253AFQE%253D%2528su%252CNone%252C32%2529%2522Drinking%2B%2528Alcoholic%2Bbeverages%2529%2522%2524&contentSet=GSRC&sort=Relevance&tabID=T010&sgCurrentPosition=0&subjectAction=DISPLAY_SUBJECTS&prodId=OVRC&searchId=R2&currentPosition=10&userGroupName=lom_mercyhs&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&sgHitCountType=None&qrySerId=Locale%28en%2C%2C%29%3AFQE%3D%28SU%2CNone%2C32%29%22Drinking+%28Alcoholic+beverages%29%22%24&inPS=true&searchType=BasicSearchForm&displaySubject=&docId=EJ3010208227&docType=GSRC
This article talked about how dangerous naming an alcohol benefit could be. Research does show that a “moderate” amount of alcohol was good for you and would lower cholesterol. Having one glass of wine for women and 2 for men, or one beer or one shot was healthy. Some people took this “moderate” term too far and no one really knew what it meant. Some thought moderate meant 2 drinks in a month and some thought moderate was a bottle of wine a day. This shows that media can distort one’s thinking of the real fact. When you use a vague term like moderate, people don’t understand what it means and just see the words that alcohol is healthy, which it’s not as any amount of alcohol can be dangerous to anyone.
ARTICLE TWO

Frequent, Moderate Drinking Benefits Human Health


Table of Contents: Further Readings
"Study Finds Frequent Consumption of Alcohol Linked to Lower Risk of Heart Attack in Men," www.hsph.harvard.edu, January 8, 2003. Copyright © 2003 by Harvard School of Public Health. Reproduced by permission of Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard School of Public Health.
According to a recent study, frequent, moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages offers significant cardiovascular benefits, coauthors of the study argue in the following viewpoint. Men who drank one serving of an alcoholic beverage at least three times a week experienced the greatest reduction in risk of coronary disease. Further, the coauthors contend that alcohol's influence on the body is short-lived. Thus, infrequent drinking, while still beneficial, does not offer the greatest protection. The coauthors are from the Harvard School of Public Health, which is research-based and advances the public's health through learning, discovery, and communication.
As you read, consider the following questions:
  1. According to the editors, how long did the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) study last?
  2. What four features of alcohol use did the HSPH study assess?
  3. In addition to raising the level of HDL, what is alcohol's impact on the body, in the editors' opinion?
Daily or near-daily servings of beer, wine or spirits may help protect men from heart attacks, according to the results of a large, long-term study by researchers at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) and the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH). The findings, which appear in the Jan. 9 [2003] issue of The New England Journal of Medicine, show that men who drank moderate amounts of alcoholic beverages three or more times a week had a risk of myocardial infarction 30 to 35 percent lower than nondrinkers.
The observational study, which tracked the drinking habits of nearly 40,000 men over a 12-year period, provides an important clue as to how alcohol helps guard against coronary heart disease, and for the first time, strongly suggests that routine consumption of alcoholic beverages is key.
"Even relatively modest amounts of alcohol may be protective if consumed frequently," said the study's first author, Kenneth Mukamal, MD, MPH, of BIDMC's Division of General Medicine and Primary Care and Assistant Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School. "Our results document that a pattern of regular consumption at least three to four days per week is associated with the lowest risk of heart attacks."
The researchers analyzed data from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study based at HSPH. Subjects included a total of 38,077 male health professionals between the ages of 40 and 75. Beginning in 1986, the subject responded to a detailed questionnaire regarding diet, medical history and patterns of alcohol consumption. They then completed follow-up questionnaires every four years thereafter until 1998.
The researchers assessed four features of alcohol use: type of alcohol consumed (beer, liquor, red wine or white wine); the average amount of alcohol consumed; whether or not the beverage was consumed with a meal; and the number of days per week that alcohol was consumed. The authors documented 1,418 cases of both fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction among the study participants during the 12-year period.
Moderate, Frequent Drinking Offered the Most Protection
After adjusting for a number of factors—age, smoking, physical activity, parental history of heart disease, body-mass index, diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, aspirin use and diet—the findings showed that alcohol consumption was associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease, regardless of the type of beverage, the quantity consumed per drinking day, whether or not it was consumed with meals or the type of coronary outcome. The variable that was consistently associated with the lowest risk was the number of times per week a participant drank alcoholic beverages.
After separating study subjects into categories based on whether they drank no alcoholic beverages, drank fewer than once or twice a week, drank three to four times a week, or drank five to seven times a week, the researchers found that the subjects in the categories of three-to-four or five-to-seven drinks per week had a 32 to 37 percent reduced risk of coronary heart disease, compared with abstainers.
The reasons behind these findings may be twofold, noted Mukamal. "In general, alcohol raises levels of HDL, the good cholesterol. But, in addition alcohol impacts the body's sensitivity to insulin, as well as platelet function and clotting factors." Through these additional effects, he said, alcohol may be improving how the body metabolizes blood sugar and helping to prevent the development of blood clots, which can lead to a heart attack.
"It seems that alcohol's influence on platelets and clotting is relatively short term," he added. "This could explain why frequent alcohol intake is of greatest benefit in helping to guard against coronary heart disease."
Eric Rimm, ScD, Associate Professor of Nutrition and Epidemiology at the Harvard School of Public Health and the study's senior author, added that this was one of the first studies to document a lower risk of heart attacks among men who increase their alcohol consumption over time. Study subjects who increased consumption by one drink per day during the 12 years of the study had a 22 percent lower risk of heart attack than men whose consumption patterns remained unchanged.
Mukamal cautioned that these findings cannot be generalized without reservation. "It's always tricky to offer individual advice based on observational studies of large numbers of people," he noted. "You need to take into account other considerations—for example, a person's family history, the risk of driving in an impaired state, the risk of developing liver problems—before deciding on the safest level of alcohol consumption for that individual. However, among men who drink alcohol, consuming one or two drinks a day three or more times a week may help reduce the risk of coronary heart disease."
Source 2: http://find.galegroup.com/ovrc/retrieve.do?subjectParam=Locale%2528en%252C%252C%2529%253AFQE%253D%2528su%252CNone%252C32%2529%2522Drinking%2B%2528Alcoholic%2Bbeverages%2529%2522%2524&contentSet=GSRC&sort=Relevance&tabID=T010&sgCurrentPosition=0&subjectAction=DISPLAY_SUBJECTS&prodId=OVRC&searchId=R1&currentPosition=11&userGroupName=lom_mercyhs&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&sgHitCountType=None&qrySerId=Locale%28en%2C%2C%29%3AFQE%3D%28SU%2CNone%2C32%29%22Drinking+%28Alcoholic+beverages%29%22%24&inPS=true&searchType=BasicSearchForm&displaySubject=&docId=EJ3010217237&docType=GSRC
This article says that drinking a few glasses of wine, beer, or spirits may lower the risk of developing coronary heart disease and heart attacks. The alcohol “impacts the body's sensitivity to insulin, as well as platelet function and clotting factors”. Drinking frequently is more effective because that alcohol will wear off as it is short-term. In this way, each time it wears off, you can drink again which is the greatest benefit in helping to fight against this coronary disease. This article strongly stresses that routine consumption of any form of alcoholic beverage is healthy.

CHURCH STATEMENT

This excerpt is from the Catholic Catechism: “The virtue of temperance disposes us to avoid every kind of excess: the abuse of food, alcohol, tobacco, or medicine. Those incur grave guilt who, by drunkenness or a love of speed, endanger their own and others’ safety on the road, at sea, or in the air” (2290).
Source: the book Catechism of the Catholic Church
This excerpt explains that we should abstain from any form of alcohol because it could hurt others and ourselves. In the virtue of temperance, it tells us to avoid this. Alcohol abuse could also make us feel guilty or be dangerous if we drink with speed known as binge drinking. Alcohol could endanger us on the road, at sea, or in the air.

WORKS CITED


Zimmerman, Robert. "The Alcohol Industry Should Not Be Permitted to Advertise the Health Benefits of Moderate Drinking." Current Controversies: Alcoholism. Ed. James D. Torr. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2000. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale. Mercy High School Media Center. 4 Dec. 2008 <http://find.galegroup.com/ovrc/infomark.do?&contentSet=GSRC&type=retrieve&tabID=T010&prodId=OVRC&docId=EJ3010208227&source=gale&srcprod=OVRC&userGroupName=lom_mercyhs&version=1.0>.

Harvard School of Public Health. "Frequent, Moderate Drinking Benefits Human Health." Opposing Viewpoints: Alcohol. Ed. Karen F. Balkin. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2004. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale. Mercy High School Media Center. 4 Dec. 2008 <http://find.galegroup.com/ovrc/infomark.do?&contentSet=GSRC&type=retrieve&tabID=T010&prodId=OVRC&docId=EJ3010217237&source=gale&srcprod=OVRC&userGroupName=lom_mercyhs&version=1.0>.\

The Catechism of the Catholic Church. New York: Doubleday, 1994.

INTERVIEW


I interviewed my sister Andrea and her friend Laura who are both 26.

1. What does drinking mean to you?

Andrea: consuming alcohol.

Laura: Any form of consumption of alcohol.

2. Do you feel drinking is abused by some people? If so, what types of people?

Andrea: Yes. Drinking is abused by alcoholics and people who are depressed.

Laura: Yes. Drinking is abused by alcoholics and people who are upset and want to feel better about a situation or about themselves.

3. How would you describe binge drinking?

Andrea: Drinking in excess.

Laura: Drinking a lot at once.

4. Do you think binge drinking is the most common form of drinking?

Andrea: No. I think social drinking is the most common form.

Laura: Yes.


5. Do you think 21 is the appropriate age for drinking?

Andrea: No. I think 18 is the appropriate age for drinking because people would not get so out of control at 21 if they had experienced it earlier.

Laura: Yes.

6. How much alcohol do you think your liver can handle per hour?

Andrea: 24 oz of beer.

Laura: 3 drinks; 12 oz of beer, 4 oz of wine and 1 ½ shot of liquor.


7. Do you believe drinking affects your health in a positive or negative way? Explain.

Andrea: A glass of red wine a week would have a positive effect; binge drinking on a regular basis would be negative.

Laura: Positive; it kills off weak brain cells.

8. Do you think underage drinking is a serious problem? Why or why not.

Andrea: Yes. Younger people may not know how alcohol affects them and get more out of control than a responsible adult.

Laura: Not unless they are driving.

9. What would you do if you saw a minor purchasing or drinking alcohol?

Andrea: Nothing. The person selling alcohol is responsible for checking their ID.

Laura: Blackmail them.

10. Do you think you drank more alcohol in college or now? Why might that be? Do you think other people would feel the same?

Andrea: College. It was new and everyone else drank. Yes I think other people would feel the same.

Laura: In college. There was lots of free time and no driving. I don’t know if other people would feel the same.

Jackie

I. What is your moral issue?
Is drinking with the intention of getting drunk moral?
II. Awareness/Look for the Facts, Imagine Possibilities
a. What facts are important for your decision making? (What facts did your group find that are important to know in making your decision. List the most important – at least 3-5 - and explain why they are important.)
· Research has also shown that youth who use alcohol before age 15 are five times more likely to become alcohol dependent than adults who begin drinking at age 21. This is important because it shows how many alcoholics came to be possibly by drinking under the legal age which is immoral which helps in my decision.
· 1,700 college students die per year from alcohol-related unintentional injuries. This also shows how alcohol could lead to immoral decisions such as feeling they are more free or dangerous or immune to injuries when really they are not and they get hurt.
· Alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease, regardless of the type of beverage, the quantity consumed per drinking day, whether or not it was consumed with meals or the type of coronary outcome. This is important because it shows a positive outcome of drinking. It shows that it can be moral by benefiting your health.

b. What are all the possible decisions you could make regarding this issue (even the negative ones)?
· Are you drinking just to get drunk?
· Do you drink before you are 21?
· Do you drink a lot or a little?
· Do you drink wine once a week?
· Or are you drinking beer every day?
· Do you drink by yourself or only with a social group?

c. Who will be affected? Is the person doing the action important to your decision?
· The person that will be affected is anyone who drinks. It could also affect the family or friends of the person who drinks because if that person decides to drive home, they could harm the passengers in that car. It could affect their family because if the person is an alcoholic the family could have problems in communication which could potentially ruin a family.
· No the person doing the action is not really important to my decision because it doesn’t matter who drinks it.
d. What are consequences for possible decisions?
· If you are drinking just to get drunk, all consequences below are possible
· If you drink before you are 21, you could get your license revoked or thrown in jail
· If you drink a lot you could actually die from too much alcohol in a short period of time in which you need to get your stomach pumped
· If you drink a little or a medium amount you could still be conscious enough to do dangerous things or walk away without knowing it, or maybe doing something that you are going to regret the next day.
· Drinking wine once a week is healthy for your heart but drinking beer every day can have serious side effects or long – term health problems
· If you drink by yourself and something happens to you, no one will be there to help you and you could potentially die from that also.
· If a person drinks with a social group, they could potentially embarrass themselves or other people including their family. They could hurt someone or ruin relationships in that one night that could never be fixed.
e. What motives and intentions are important to consider?
· Is this person drinking with only the intention of getting drunk?
· Does this person have ulterior motives that could potentially be dangerous?
· Is this person drinking because of peer pressure or because they want to do it.
f. Are the methods used or the means to the goal important to consider?
· Yes, the methods, meaning forms of alcohol, are important because even though drinking a glass of wine is the same amount of alcohol as a shot of liquor or whiskey, if you drink bottles of them both the effects will be much different so the method of drinking could be vital to the person’s life in whether they could potentially live or die from it
· The means to the goal, meaning getting drunk, is also important to consider because if they are getting peer pressured into drinking than that is wrong and they shouldn’t pay the consequences for that but if they want to get drunk and know they will have to pay the consequences then it is their responsibility.
g. What circumstances are worth considering?
· how old the person is, their size and weight; if they are legal to drink
· the gender of the person
· what kind of alcohol they are drinking
· how many times a week they drink this alcohol
· how tolerant the person is to alcohol
· what their reputation is on drinking; how they act when they are drunk( happy, hostile, dangerous, angry, quiet)

III. Development/Seek Insight Beyond Your Own, Turn Inward
a. What value did your articles and/or interviews have in helping you understand your issue? What comments influenced you the most? Did the Church view help in any way?
· The values my articles had was really seeing actual percentages and knowing that this is a big problem in the world and seeing the effects it has on some people.
· My interviewees were sort of helpful in confirming that yes more people drink in college and why and also their thoughts on the proper age of drinking and health effects and what they believe.
· The comments that influenced me the most were that Laura said alcohol has a positive health effect which kills off weak brain cells which I’m not sure if it is true or not but it made me think. Another comment would be in the article when it said drinking frequently is more effective because that alcohol will wear off as it is short-term. In this way, each time it wears off, you can drink again which is the greatest benefit in helping to fight against this coronary disease.
· The Church view helped me to know that what the catechism says to do is to abstain from all alcohol as it could hurt others and the person drinking it which is vital to my point.
b. What are pertinent laws or moral principles?
· Pertinent laws are: if you are drinking and driving,
· if you are drinking under the age of 21
· if a minor is intoxicated, purchasing alcohol, misrepresentation of age, or attempting to purchase alcohol
· If you have opened alcohol in your car even if it wasn’t yours or if you weren’t drinking it.
· If you have someone else drinking in the car
· All of these laws suffer the consequences of: jail time, serious fines, community service, alcohol awareness classes, and license revocation.
c. How do your own personal experience and personal values help you in considering the issue?
· My family is a big drinking family who loves to party so my personal experiences with drinking are watching them a lot. This helps me to see what the effects of alcohol are and how it changes them when they are drunk as appose to sober.
· My personal values help me because my values include a right to life, as well as responsibility, and consequences of actions which point me in the direction of how drinking is bad for you.
IV. Judgment/Expect God’s Help, Name Your Decision
a. How might you pray about this issue? How does considering Jesus’ example and teaching (including the Beatitudes) affect your judgment? Does this tie in to topics we have studied in class (costly grace)?
· I would pray for people to drink responsibly and know when to stop. I would pray that they don’t try to drive home which could hurt people, and that they don’t hurt themselves.
· Considering Jesus’ example and teaching affects my judgment because his judgment would be to stay away from alcohol and save you from harm. In the bible, I think there was a parable of a woman who was an alcoholic and he healed her of her addictions and helped her. However in the beatitude give drink to the thirsty I don’t think he was including giving alcohol to the alcoholics.
· This could tie into cheap grace because maybe people who are alcoholics would know or think that drinking this much would be wrong but they believe God loves them anyway so He won’t be disappointed.
b. What is your decision? Write a paragraph which clearly states your judgment about the morality of your issue, giving reasons to support your issue. What values are lived out in the decision you have made?


My decision of is drinking to get drunk moral goes both ways. I believe if someone is drinking with a social group and having fun and partying and they get drunk or know they are going to get drunk, than that’s fine because there is nothing wrong with it. Yes it could lead to health issues and such but it doesn’t make it moral or immoral. Yes some people could die from overuse of alcohol on one night but I don’t believe they have an intention of dying that night. I don’t think that person goes out and thinks “I’m going to die of alcohol abuse tonight” but if they did think that, then it would be immoral. This is immoral because it’s a form of suicide. Killing yourself with no purpose is not what God’s plans for us entail. Alcohol also can lead someone into making immoral decisions. One such example could be when someone feels that they are dangerous and superior to others and that they are capable of pulling off stunts that are nearly impossible which results in serious injuries onto themselves. These stunts could consist of stupid ideas such as jumping from one thing to another or performing something ridiculous as well as a motorcycle or other vehicle accident because they were drunk and had less coordination and thinking on how to operate on one. Another immoral decision could be to kill someone because they are not thinking straight. They could embarrass themselves or family which would fall under the inconsiderate category making them unkind. They could rape someone or have unprotected sex resulting in unplanned pregnancies that they could potentially abort which makes that immoral. So many immoral situations could come out of the alcohol. So I believe the drinking itself is moral, but the decisions that could result from the alcohol have a strong potential to be immoral and most likely will be. By stating that the decisions caused by alcohol are immoral I am living out the value of the right to life. I am respecting the right to life because if unplanned pregnancies occur because of the drunkenness and they don’t want the baby, abortion could be possible. Also the right to life is appropriate because there are millions of people who get drunk and hurt themselves permanently or even kill themselves because of the decisions they made under the influence of alcohol. By calling drinking itself moral I am living out my value of acceptance in which I accept the fact that some people can’t handle not drinking, or they are alcoholics, or want to drink which I am fine with. By saying the decisions made because of alcohol are immoral I am also living out the value of self-control. These people cannot control themselves once they surrender to alcohol which represents a lack of self–control because someone else has to help them get better.



Mackenzie
Articles # 2:

1. http://find.galegroup.com/ips/retrieve.do?contentSet=IAC-Documents&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&qrySerId=Locale%28en%2C%2C%29%3AFQE%3D%28ke%2CNone%2C17%29underage+drinking%24&sgHitCountType=None&inPS=true&sort=DateDescend&searchType=BasicSearchForm&tabID=T003&prodId=IPS&searchId=R1&currentPosition=11&userGroupName=lom_mercyhs&docId=A184488984&docType=IAC&contentSet=IAC-Documents
- this article is talking about the issue of lowering the drinking age. It explains how the difference between 21 and 18 is key for the legal age to drink.over 25,000 lives have been saved since the age was raised to 21 and it also is important to wait until that age because the brain is not fully developed at 18.

2. http://find.galegroup.com/ips/retrieve.do?contentSet=IAC-Documents&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&qrySerId=Locale%28en%2C%2C%29%3AFQE%3D%28ke%2CNone%2C17%29underage+drinking%3AAnd%3AFQE%3D%28TX%2CNone%2C7%29alcohol%24&sgHitCountType=None&inPS=true&sort=DateDescend&searchType=BasicSearchForm&tabID=T003&prodId=IPS&searchId=R2&currentPosition=21&userGroupName=lom_mercyhs&docId=A180314784&docType=IAC&contentSet=IAC-Documents-
this article presented interesting facts in the decline of alcohol use, but the rise in how much is consumed at once. It suggested that our culture starts implementing healthy, moderate drinkinghabits at home in hopes of lowering the number of binge drinkers because it wouldn't be so secretive or severe.

WORKS CITED FOR ABOVE ARTICLES:
Cloud, John. "Should You Drink with Your Kids?(The Well; Society; Underage Drinking)(San Diego County Alcohol-Policy Panel)." Time 171.26 (June 30, 2008): 44. General OneFile. Gale. Mercy High School Media Center. 8 Dec. 2008
<http://find.galegroup.com/ips/start.do?prodId=IPS>.

Dean-Mooney, Laura. "A Lower Age Would Be Unsafe; Since the mid-1980s, U.S. citizens have had to be at least 21 to purchase or consume alcohol. But a group of college presidents have reignited the 21 drinking age debate, arguing it has fostered a binge-drinking culture. Advocates argue the law has saved lives. Should the drinking age stay at 21?." U.S. News & World Report 145.6 (Sept 15, 2008): 10. General OneFile. Gale. Mercy High School Media Center. 8 Dec. 2008
<http://find.galegroup.com/ips/start.do?prodId=IPS>.



Source 1 : http://ncadistore.samhsa.gov/catalog/facts.aspx?topic=159
This web site page has a publication from the US Department of Health and Human Services. It contains information from a 2002 survey. It defined binge drinking and gave important statistics in regards to the topic. The website is brief and to the point with key information. It describes binge drinking in the youth age group (ages 12-17) as well as young adults (ages 18-21). The facts were very helpful in determining how common binge drinking is among certain age levels.
Source 2: http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/9416.html
This article is from the American Medical Association. It discusses some of the physical and mental risks of drinking alcohol. It gives facts on where and how the brain is affected by alcohol use found through experimentation and research. Not only does it discuss short term drinking effects, but long term ones as well. In addition, the article lists several ways to decrease the amount of underage drinking that can then reduce the number of side effects.
Source 3: http://www.brad21.org/facts.html
B.R.A.D. 21 stands “Be Responsible About Drinking” and the website gives short quick facts on many different areas of the drinking issue. It provides information on injury that can occur from alcohol related actions as well as the use of alcohol in date rape. It also gives information on youth and underage drinking in addition to how alcoholic beverages affect the body. The quick bullets make for easy understand and reading with to the point facts. Overall, this website may have been one of the most helpful for fact finding.

WORKS CITED:

"Alcohol Alert - Underage Drinking." NIAAA. Jan. 2006. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. 25 Nov. 2008 <http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/aa67/aa67.htm>.

"Binge Drinking." Alcohol and Drug Information. 7 Oct. 2002. US Department of Health and Human Services & SAMHSA's National Clearing House. 25 Nov. 2008 <http://ncadistore.samhsa.gov/catalog/facts.aspx?topic=159>.

"Binge Drinking." Teens Health. Aug. 2006. Nemours Foundation. 25 Nov. 2008 <http://kidshealth.org/teen/drug_alcohol/alcohol/binge_drink.html>.

"Brain Damage Risks." AMA Helping Doctors Help Patients. 12 Feb. 2008. AMA. 25 Nov. 2008.

"'Death By Alcohol' Warns of College Binge Drinking Risks." ABC News. 12 June 2006. ABC. 25 Nov. 2008 <http://www.abcnews.go.com/gma/health/story?id=2065494&page=1>.

"Study: Underage, Heavy Drinkers Consume Half of U.S. Alcohol." Join Together. 25 Feb. 2003. Join Together. 25 Nov. 2008 <http://www.jointogether.org/news/features/2003/study-underage-heavy-drinkers.html>.
Emma

ARTICLES
Article 1 http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/AA67/AA67.htm
This article basically describes the statistics of underage drinking written by the National Institution for Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAA). It starts off by explaining the young ages in which teenagers are beginning to drink and later describes some of the after effects. It also provides good strong suggestion to help avoid underage drinking.
Article 2 http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/16173568/wid/11915773#storyContinued
This article first describes how having moderate amounts of alcohol can actually extend life span but them describes how binge drinking can lead to a turn for the worst. It describes what a moderate amount of alcohol and then describes what can come from heavy drinking and how that can shorten life span
Article 3 http://www.alcoholalert.com/drunk-driving-statistics.html
This article is basically filled with recent drunk driving statistics. It really opens your eyes to how serious of an issue alcohol is and what can happen when a person is driving drunk.

WORK CITED
Moelker, Wendy. "Is alcoholism hereditary?." 22 Jul 2008 25 Nov 2008 <http://web4health.info/en/answers/add-alcohol-inherited>.

"2006 Drunk Driving Statistics." Alcohol Alert! <http://www.alcoholalert.com/drunk-driving-statistics.html>.

"Who's Using Alcohol?." Family Guide <http://family.samhsa.gov/talk/alcohol.aspx>.

"Want to live longer? Toss back a few cocktails.." 16 Dec 2006 25 Nov 2008 <http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/16173568/wid/11915773#storyContinued>.

"Underage Drinking." Alcohol Alert Jan 2006 <http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/AA67/AA67.htm>.

Emma Bowen- Opinion Portion

INTERVIEW

I choose to interview my parents John and Teri. My dad John, is a lawyer and my mom Teri, is a school teacher so they both know a great deal about the effects of drinking


Do you believe that the drinking issue is becoming more serious as time goes on?
Teri: No, I think people are more aware of the dangers of alcoholism and that parents communicate more with their children.
John: No, I think society had done a better job addressing the problems of alcoholism. Deaths by drunk driving are down considerably in the last 35 years, still too high but…
Do you feel that kids these days are under more pressure to drink than you were?
Teri: No because I think that there is a strong movement of kids that want to stand up for the right thing. I think we had it worse because we weren’t as well-educated and a lot of kids did not know the dangers of drinking
John: No I would say about the same or less.
At what age do you feel teenagers are most pressured into drinking?
Teri: Sixteen when they start to drive and have more freedom
John: Between 14 and 16 years old to be accepted by their friends.
Do you agree with the legal age of 21? Why or why not?
Teri: Yeah because by that age you have graduated from college and you are mature enough to make decisions on your own.
John: Yes, greater maturity and life experiences.
Why do you think teenagers are put under pressure to drink?
Teri: Peer Pressure, because they want to be cool, and look good in front of their peers
John: Pop culture, advertising, and peer pressure, the media makes you think it is associated with having a good time
Can you think of any active ways to stop underage drinking?
Teri: Parental supervision, parents not having policy that allow drinking at parties as long as the teen is not driving. “Drunk goggles” in classrooms that simulate what it is like to be drunk
John: Supervised get togethers educations of parents and other people not to serve alcohol to minors, prosecution of adults who buy for or sell alcohol to minors.
Do you think the government ways of ensuring someone is of age are effective?
Teri: No, anybody can get a fake ID, and bar owners are interested in making bucks off people who are drinking so they do not bother to card their buyers
John: Somewhat, ID’s that go the other way if you are under 21, its harder to produce a fake ID but enforcement of the law is not actively pursued.
What is your biggest concern about alcoholism?
Teri: I worry the most about drinking and driving and teenagers putting themselves in risky situations when they are not thinking straight
John: The damage it does to families, communities and health of people.
Do you feel that society is affected by alcoholism?
Teri: Yes, I personally know people that have been killed by a drunk driver, and families that have been torn apart because one member is an alcoholic, and childrens whose childhoods are ruined because of their parents drinking.
John: Yes, large social costs of health problems and abuse, broken families and lost work productivity.
What changes would you like to see in the future?
Teri: Lower alcohol conception for high school and college students and more education on the dangers of alcoholism.
John: Stricter enforcement of drinking laws, better education, and better rehabilitation services.

Article 1- http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1812397,00.html
This is an editorial written for Time Magazine debating whether or not the drinking age should be lowered form 18 to 21. It is a very strong editorial and does a very good and powerful job acknowledging both sides of the argument. However the writer still makes his point very clear and states that he is strongly against the lowering of the drinking age.
Article 2-http://seacoastauction.com/2005news/07252005/editoria/54477.htm
This is another editorial but this time it is about underage drinking. It makes very strong comments about how access to alcohol is just too easy for children under 21. It also argues the difference between a child and an adult when dealing with alcoholism and how children these days are deceived by the media into thinking drinking is a cool and acceptable thing to participate in. With alternative offered and ways to stop underage drinking suggested this artical is a very strongly opinionated editorial.

Work Cited
Cloud, John. "Should the drinking age be lowered?." Time Magazine 06 Jun 2008 8 Dec 2008 <http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1812397,00.html>.

"Let's get real with underage drinking laws." Portsmouth Herald 25 Jul 2005 8 Dec 2008 <http://seacoastauction.com/2005news/07252005/editoria/54477.htm>.