The Facts:


Jackie:
who does drinking involve?
Drinking involves anyone over the age of 21, especially college students. It also concerns some teens who drink before they turn the legal age.
why do people drink?
This was a survey taken from 15-25 year olds on why people drink alcohol.

  1. Sociability (71%)
  2. Like the taste (51%)
  3. Feel at ease (12%)
  4. Get intoxicated (6%)
  5. Get drunk (2%)
  6. Because everybody does it (6%)
  7. To forget problems (0%)
http://web4health.info/en/answers/add-alcohol-why.htm

Another list of common reasons

It helps them to relax

It gives them confidence

It helps them to sleep

It helps reduce anxiety

It stops them worrying about things

To deal with stress

To deal with panic attacks

Because they are depressed

Dependant on it

To counter-act withdrawal symptom
http://www.apas.org.uk/why_people_drink.htm

what is the legal limit for men and women and what is their BAC count at those different times?

http://www.myrtle-beach-lawyer.com/bac.gif
The legal limit for drinking is the alcohol level above which an individual is subject to legal penalties (e.g., arrest or loss of a driver's license).
    • Legal limits are measured using either a blood alcohol test or a breathalyzer.
    • Legal limits are typically defined by state law, and may vary based on individual characteristics such as age and occupation.
All states in the United States have adopted 0.08% (80 mg/dL) as the legal limit for operating a motor vehicle for drivers aged 21 years or older. However, drivers under age 21 years are not allowed to operate a motor vehicle with any level of alcohol in their system.
Pasted from <http://www.cdc.gov/alcohol/faqs.htm>

what are the effects of binge- drinking or other short-term effects?
The CAS findings have shown that alcohol consumption
at binge levels and beyond has a significant impact on
college students’ academic performance, social relationships,
risk taking behaviors, and health. This form of drinking is
associated with missing class, falling behind in schoolwork,
and lower grade point average, a relationship mediated by
fewer hours spent studying (Powell et al., 2004; Wechsler
et al., 2002b). Binge drinking is associated with risky sexual
behavior, including engaging in unplanned sexual activity
and failure to use protection during sex (Wechsler et al.,
2000b). It is also tied to antisocial behavior, including vandalism
and getting into trouble with the police when drinking
(Wechsler et al., 2002b). Overall, half of frequent binge
drinkers, those who drink at the five/four level or beyond
three or more times in a 2-week period report experiencing
five or more different alcohol-related problems (Wechsler
et al., 2000b).
An NIAAA chartered study estimated that 1,700 college
students die per year from alcohol-related unintentional injuries,
the majority in motor-vehicle crashes (Hingson et
al., 2005). Driving is perhaps the most dangerous context
for drinking alcohol. Among students who drove one or
more times per week, 13% reported driving after consuming
five or more drinks, and 23% of students said they rode
with a driver who was high or intoxicated (Wechsler et al.,
2003a). An estimated 2 million college students drove a
motor vehicle under the influence of alcohol, and more
than 3 million rode with an intoxicated driver (Hingson et
al., 2005). Students who binge drink are more likely to put
themselves and others at risk by operating or riding in a
motor vehicle after drinking (Wechsler et al., 2003a). Few
college students, less than 1% of drinkers, report that they
required medical treatment after overdosing on alcohol.
However, this number may involve an estimated 30,000
students when projected across the 5 million students attending
4-year colleges each year (Wechsler et al., 2000c,
2002b).
http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/cas/What-We-Learned-08.pdf
Alcohol Level
For Women
For Men
Effect
0 – 0.5
About 1 glass
About 2 glasses
The blood vessels under the skin dilate, causing a warm feeling. Taste, smell and vision are reduced a little, and also the sense of pain is reduced.
0.5 – 1.5
About 1 to 5 glasses
About 2 – 7 glasses
There is a change of mood and behavior. There is overestimation. A numbing effect starts to play a role. Memory decreases, judging situations become more difficult, and speed of reaction is reduced. Muscle coordination is affected, vision changes.
1.5 – 3
About 5-9 glasses
About 7 – 14 glasses
All the above-mentioned effects are enhanced. Behavior becomes excessively emotional. Self-criticism disappear. The face becomes red and gets swollen, pupils dilate. The chance of nausea and vomiting is high.
3 – 4
9 – 13 glasses
14 – 19 glasses
The senses get numbed. The drinker is totally confused. He hardly notices what he hears and sees.
4


The risk of unconsciousness is very high. There is danger to life. He or she can go into a coma and possibly die of a heart attack or respiratory arrest.
http://web4health.info/en/answers/add-alcohol-physical.htm>

TABLE 1. Alcohol-related injury, by usual number of drinks in the population
Number of drinks usually consumed when drinking
Percent of drinkers at each level of unusual numbers of drinks consumed
Percent at each level of usual number of drinks reporting an alcohol – related injury in the past school year
Actual number of CAS respondents who reported an alcohol – related injury in the past school year of 38, 982 drinkers
Percent of total number of students reporting an alcohol- related injury at each level of usual number of drinks

1
13
2
90
2

2
21
4
366
7

3
18
9
598
12

4
15
14
791
16

5
12
18
804
16

6
8
23
731
15

7
4
26
441
9

8
3
30
360
7

      • or equal to 9
5
33
700
14

Total
100
13
4,881
100

http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/cas/What-We-Learned-08.pdf

What are some of the health problems associated with heavy drinkers or binge- drinkers?
Excessive drinking both in the form of heavy drinking or binge drinking, is associated with numerous health problems, including but not limited to
    • Chronic diseases such as liver cirrhosis (damage to liver cells); pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas); various cancers, including liver, mouth, throat, larynx (the voice box), and esophagus; high blood pressure; and psychological disorders.
    • Unintentional injuries, such as motor-vehicle traffic crashes, falls, drowning, burns and firearm injuries.
    • Violence, such as child maltreatment, homicide and suicide.
    • Harm to a developing fetus if a woman drinks while pregnant, such as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.
    • Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
    • Alcohol abuse or dependence.
http://www.cdc.gov/alcohol/faqs.htm#16
ADDITIONAL FACTS(15)
A National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
(NIAAA) advisory panel recommended that researchers define
a binge as a pattern of drinking that brings blood alcohol
concentration to .08 gram percent or greater, a level of
consumption that corresponds to five or more drinks for
men and four or more drinks for women in a period of
about 2 hours (NIAAA, 2004).
http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/cas/What-We-Learned-08.pdf

Studies have shown that alcohol use by youth and young adults increases the risk of both fatal and nonfatal injuries. Research has also shown that youth who use alcohol before age 15 are five times more likely to become alcohol dependent than adults who begin drinking at age 21. Other consequences of youth alcohol use include increased risky sexual behaviors, poor school performance, and increased risk of suicide and homicide.
Pasted from <http://www.cdc.gov/alcohol/faqs.htm>

. Excessive alcohol use is the 3rd leading life-style related cause of death in the United States.
Pasted from <http://www.cdc.gov/alcohol/ardi.htm>

. Children of alcohol-dependent parents run a higher risk of developing an alcohol problem than other children. This has to do with three factors: heredity, influence of the environment, and habits.
Pasted from <http://web4health.info/en/answers/add-alcohol-inherited.htm>

When you stop drinking alcohol, you can get all kinds of withdrawal symptoms. These can vary from very light to very serious. You can suffer from sweating, sleeping badly, having stomach pains, being anxious, feeling tense or restless. In worse cases, you may also start to tremble and get an epileptic attack or delirium tremens (seizure). After 24 hours the withdrawal symptoms are usually at their peak and after three days the worst part is normally over. After 7 to 10 days, most symptoms have disappeared.
Pasted from <http://web4health.info/en/answers/add-alcohol-withdraw.htm>
6. The drinking style of many college students is one of
excess and intoxication. Among drinkers, almost half (48%)
report that drinking to get drunk is an important reason for
drinking, 1 in 4 (23%) drink alcohol 10 or more times in a
month, and 3 in 10 (29%) report being intoxicated three or
more times in a month (Wechsler et al., 2002b). Binge
drinkers consumed 91% of all the alcohol that students reported
drinking, and 68% of alcohol was consumed by frequent
binge drinkers (Wechsler et al., 1999).
http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/cas/What-We-Learned-08.pdf

JACKIE

Articles

Source 1 http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/cas/What-We-Learned-08.pdf
This is an article from the Public Health College Alcohol Study from Harvard. It focuses on the consumption of alcohol. It also includes and explains the different effects of drinking too much, statistics on college students who drink alcohol, and charts taken by these students. This article discusses binge drinking and it's serious consequences and effects. It talks about the second hand effects of alcohol and also the influences in society and community factors that encourage the use of alcohol. The article concludes with prevention methods and efforts.

Source 2 http://www.cdc.gov/alcohol/faqs.htm#16
This is an article from the Department of Health and Human Services from CDC which stands for Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This was an article of frequently asked questions and reliable and detailed answers. It gave the definition of alcohol, gave the effects of alcohol, and discussed what is safe in terms of how many drinks or what kind of alcohol is best. It also included ways of prevention, what to do in case you feel you or someone else has an addiction, and what it means to obey the "legal limits". It went on to describe what a binge drinker is, different health problems, and defined alcohol abuse as well as alcoholism illustrating a clear difference between the two. It explained when it is okay and not okay for someone to drink and what it meant to be intoxicated or drunk.

Source 3 http://web4health.info/en/answers/add-alcohol-why.htm
This article is from a woman psychologist that wrote it. It has many categories and includes free medical information and advice. Some topics that I used were: the different effects of alcohol, long and short and positive and negative, withdrawal symptoms - what they are and when they go away, and the definition of alcohol and addiction. I also looked at if an alcohol addiction was hereditary or not, and why people drink. These articles also provided help and advice if it was needed in any situation. It gave people reliable facts and reasons to the why and how questions.

Works Cited

Moelker, Wendy. "Why do People Drink Alcohol?." 22 July 2008 25 Nov 2008 <http://web4health.info/en/answers/add-alcohol-why.htm>.

Tegerdine, Nick. "Why do people drink alcohol?." 25 Nov 2008 <http://www.apas.org.uk/why_people_drink.htm >.

Gerberding, Julie . "Frequently Asked Questions." 28 September 2008 25 Nov 2008 <http://www.cdc.gov/alcohol/faqs.htm#8>.

Wechsler, Henry, Nelson, Toben F./'. "What We Have Learned From the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study: Focusing Attention on College Student Alcohol Consumption and the Environmental Conditions That Promote It." July 2008 1-8. 25 Nov 2008 <http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/cas/What-We-Learned-08.pdf>.

Wells, Michael H.. "Criminal Defenses and DUI." (2005) 25 Nov 2008 <http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.myrtle-beach-lawyer.com/bac.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.myrtle-beach-lawyer.com/Criminal%2520Defense.htm&usg=__gaV7OwlSc0xtbLd3Yj5s2YLxQvU=&h=262&w=659&sz=13&hl=en&start=4&tbnid=iUI7VnyRvCBzpM:&tbnh=55&tbnw=138&prev=/images%3Fq%3DBAC%2Bcharts%26gbv%3D2%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG>.


Mackenzie:
15 Facts:
1. Alcohol is the number one date rape drug
2. Alcohol consumption by college students is linked to at least 14,000 student deaths and
500,000 unintentional injuries a year
3. Alcohol effects every body system
4. If you OD from alcohol, you can die
5. Your blood alcohol content depends on gender, height, weight, physical condition, and age.
6. Nearly 4 out of 5 students have consumed alcohol by the end of high school.
7. Approx. 5,000 young people die each year as a result of underage drinking
8. 8. Drinking can alter brain development. It has a significant impact on long-term thinking and memory skills.
9. 9. Binge drinking is drinking activity most common and engaged by people ages 18-21.
10. 10. The prefrontal area of the brain (behind the forehead) changes a significant amount during adolescence. Drinking at a young age can drastically change this area of the brain which then affects adult personality and behavior.
11. 11. A government study found that 48% of college students engaged in binge drinking.
12. 12. Binge drinking is considered consuming a large number of drinks in a short period of time. IT is commonly considered 5 drinks in a row for men, and 3-4 drinks in a row for females.
13. 13. In 2003, underage drinking in addition to adult excessive drinking accounted for half of the alcoholic beverages industry’s profits. Underage drinking accounted for 20% of the profits, adult excessive drinking controlled 30%.
14. 14. Reports from a 2001 survey show 10.6% of all youths (ages 12-17) were binge drinkers.
15. Alcohol use is the second-leading cause of dementia. Drinking can also cause liver damage, certain cancers, pancreatitis, and brain damage or the shrinking of the brain


Emma:
- Children of Alcoholics are more likely to become addicted to alcohol
- some partially hereditary characteristics and personalities can have an effect on whether or not a person becomes addicted to alcohol
- Sons of addicted fathers are more at risk of addiction then daughters
- In the most recent statistics from 2006 there were 13,470 crashes involving drunk drivers above the legal limit
- Children are involved too. In 2006 there were 1,974 children 14 and younger killed in car crashes and 306 of these involved a drunk driver.
- The percentage of High School Students that drank in the last month is 43.3%
- 74.3% of high school students have had one or more drinks in their life
- 25.6% of high schoolers that had their first drink before age 13
- statistics show that kids are starting to drink younger and younger
- researchers show that moderate drinking can actually lengthen your life span
- men can have up to 4 drinks a day and women can have 2 because men and women metabolize alcohol differently
- approximatley 5,000 people under age 21 die from excessive alcohol intake
- 3/4ths of tenth graders 2/3rds of tenth graders 2 out of 5 eight graders have consumed eighth graders
- 11% of eighth graders 22% of tenth graders and 29% of 12th graders have engaged in binge drinking in the past week
- The average age where people first have alcohol is 14
- consistent binge drinkers are more likely to behave in a risky manor
- tolerence to alcohol effects is passed by genetics
- research has shown that children of alcoholics may have small brain differences which could lead to alcohol problems